settlements and along the transportation routes that connected them together. The
transportation corridor, with its southeasterly hub at Green Lake, was important because it
was the access route into the Mackenzie District, a storehouse of plenty and rich in furs.
(Thornton – Transcript, pp. 982–985 and Exhibit D-17 at p. 5; Tough – Exhibits D-22 and
 The evidence showed that while these fixed settlements were important historic Métis
settlements, the Métis were highly mobile. They moved often and travelled far and wide
for food, trapping and work. They moved frequently between the fixed settlements and
between the settlements within a given region.
 The evidence showed that Meadow Lake is also an historic Métis settlement and that
it was begun by Cyprien Morin, a Métis from Green Lake. (Tough – Transcript, pp. 1412–
1413, 1425 and 1435). The evidence showed there are substantial and continuing family
connections between the Métis living in the settlement of Green Lake and those living in
the settlement at Meadow Lake (Tough – Transcript at pp. 1413 – 1425 and Exhibit D-32).
 I find that the evidence led at this trial contains sufficient demographic information,
proof of shared customs, traditions and collective identity to support the existence of a
regional historic rights-bearing Métis community, which regional community is generally
defined as the triangle of the fixed communities of Green Lake, Île à la Crosse and Lac La
Biche and includes all of the settlements within and around the triangle including Meadow
A contemporary rights-bearing community continues to exist
 The trial judge in Laviolette also found that a contemporary rights-bearing community with
far-reaching links to other parts of Saskatchewan and to other provinces continues to exist:
 I conclude that the evidence shows that the “community” has continued to exist up to
and including the time of the offence. Evidence showed that Métis lived in Green Lake
since approximately 1786, that there was a Métis settlement at the Green Lake Post by at
least 1820 and that they have always been connected to other Métis settlements in the area
I have found to be the “community”. Evidence also showed the continuing contemporary
connections between Meadow Lake and Green Lake, including family connections
between the two settlements, and that the area between the two settlements is populated by
Métis (Exhibit D-32).
 The evidence showed that Métis families moved between Meadow Lake and Green
Lake and other Métis settlements in the “community”, that significant Métis populations
continue to exist at Green Lake and Meadow Lake and other settlements within the
“community”, and that extensive kinship connections exist between Île à la Crosse, Buffalo
Narrows, Beauval, Jackfish Lake, Jans Bay, Pinehouse, Patuanak, Turnor Lake, Victoire,
St. George’s Hill, Michel Village, Duck Lake, La Loche, Keeley Lake, Canoe Lake,
Smooth Stone, Kikino (Alberta), Dore Lake, Lac La Biche (Alberta), and Red River
 Given the extensive connections between the various communities that presently exist,
and have continued to exist, I find that the contemporary rights-bearing community is best
described as the Métis community that now lives and uses northwestern Saskatchewan and
includes the settlements of Green Lake and Meadow Lake.